Author name: Light Therapy

Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT) for Treatment of Neurobiological Diseases

Abstract In our previous study, the low-level laser (LLL) stimulation at the palm with a stimulation frequency of 10 Hz was able to induce significant brain activation in normal subjects. The electroencephalography (EEG) changes caused by the stimulation of light-emitting diode (LED) in normal subjects have not been investigated. This study aimed at identifying the effects of LED stimulation on the human brain using EEG analysis. Moreover, the dosage has been raised 4 times than that in the previous LLL study. The LED array stimulator (6 pcs LEDs, central wavelength 850 nm, output power 30 mW, and operating frequency 10 Hz) was used as the stimulation source. The LED stimulation was found to induce significant variation in alpha activity in the occipital, parietal, and temporal regions of the brain. Compared to the previous low-level laser study, LED has similar effects on EEG in alpha (8–12 Hz) activity. Theta (4–7 Hz) power significantly increased in the posterior head region of the brain. The effect lasted for at least 15 minutes after stimulation ceased. Conversely, beta (13–35 Hz) intensity in the right parietal area increased significantly, and a biphasic dose response has been observed in this study. 1. Introduction The brainwave rhythm is associated with the physical and mental status. Alpha rhythm is the dominant brainwave in normal adults who are awake and relaxed with their eyes closed, and it decreases under the eyes-open or mentally active condition [1]. The appearance of theta wave is considered to be one of the signs of drowsiness [2]. In individuals with a state of alertness or anxiety, beta activity will increase [3]. Delta waves are the main EEG activity observed during deep sleep. The most dominant pattern of change across several disorder types, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is power increases across lower frequencies (delta and theta) and decreases across higher frequencies (alpha, beta, and gamma) [4]. The alpha waves in the depression group were found to be lower compared to the normal group in both closed eyes and open eyes conditions [5]. Alpha rhythm is an important biomarker to recognize the physiological status. When people feel relaxed and awake in closed eyes, the alpha rhythm is the dominant brainwave [1]. In addition, induced alpha oscillations can be helpful for pain relief. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can enhance alpha oscillation in the somatosensory cortex to reduce chronic low back pain [6]. The photic driving response is one of the effective methods to affect brain activity. Photic stimulation with a frequency at or near the native frequency of the posterior dominant rhythm may increase the amplitude of this rhythm. Stimulation with other flash frequencies may cause a photic driving response that replaces or superimposes the posterior dominant rhythm [7]. Stimulation with red stroboscopic light can rapidly and powerfully increase the amplitude of the alpha rhythm in the occipital cortex [8]. In addition, a photic stimulation with LED goggles was applied and found that the alpha rhythms of subjects were highly influenced by different stimulation frequencies [9]. Besides the recognized clinical efficacy of visual stimulation, EEG activity can also be affected by other stimulation modalities, including electric [10], music [11], and magnetic stimulation [12]. In previous studies, a low-level laser was used to stimulate the palm of the subjects under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, and such stimulation caused significant changes in the amplitude of the subjects’ brainwaves [13, 14]. LEDs radiate noncoherent light, whereas lasers radiate coherent light. Many studies proved LED and laser have similar effects [15–17]. Till now, there are few research studies to discuss the LED stimulation on the skin to induce brainwave activity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether LED light can evoke brainwave activity. 2. Methods The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Ming-Sheng General Hospital. Each participant was required to sign an informed consent. This study was performed in conformance with the Helsinki Declaration. The trial was executed at National Taiwan University Hospital. 2.1. Participants Twenty healthy university students (mean age: 21.5 ± 1.3 years, 12 men and 8 women) were recruited for this study. The average physical states of the participants are listed in Table 1. Each subject underwent two trials on different days. They received LED stimulation (the LED group) in one trial and sham LED stimulation (the control group) in the other trial. In the first trial, each subject was randomly assigned to either the LED or the control group. In the second trial, conducted a few days later, each subject was assigned to the group to which they had not been assigned in the previous trial. The exclusive criteria were as follows: (a) a history of psychiatric disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, schizophrenia, or paranoid disorder; (b) cardiopulmonary disease; and (c) medication use currently. Table 1  Average physical status of the participants. 2.2. LED Array Arrangement and Dose Calculation An array of six LEDs arranged in a triangle, as shown in Figure 1(a), was used to radiate near-infrared (NIR) light onto the palm of subjects. NIR LEDs (model S1VS0850IR002A0Z, Millennium Communication Co., Ltd., Taiwan) were used in this study. The central wavelength, output power, operating frequency, and duty cycle of the LEDs were 850 nm, 30 mW, 10 Hz, and 50%, respectively. The light spot of the LED could be considered to be a circle. The area of the light spot on the skin was approximately 28 mm2. Thus, the energy density was calculated to be approximately 32 J/cm2 for a 10-minute treatment, the dosage of each LED was 9.0 J, and the total energy was 54.0 J. The irradiation parameters of LED are listed in Table 2. In our previous study, the output power of each laser diode was 7.0 mW, the dosage was 2.1 J, and the total energy was 12.6 J for six laser diodes [13]. The dosage in this study is 4.2 times than that in the laser study. The schematic of this stimulation is shown in Figure 1(b). (b) Figure 1  (a) Six LEDs array arranged in a triangle. (b) The schematic of this stimulation. Table 2  The irradiation parameters

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LED phototherapy with polarized light for problems in adolescence

PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENCE ACNE AND BLACKHEADS A large proportion, almost 90% of teenagers suffer from this “illness”, which may cause severe esthetic and psychological problems. Additionally, improper treatment may leave behind permanent scars. Acne or blackheads – commonly called pimples – form when the opening of the sebaceous glands in the skin becomes blocked for some reason, which leads to the proliferation of bacteria, and eventually to inflammation. Pimples usually emerge during adolescence in response to a combination of factors, such as hormonal changes, inherited predisposition, and environmental effects. In order to prevent more significant blemishes and unsightly scars, acne treatment should start early. Cleansing is very important: facial skin should be thoroughly cleaned in the morning and in the evening with lukewarm water and soap or a cleansing lotion. Remove all powder or makeup before going to bed. Only non-irritating and nondrying facial care products should be used. Do not use strongly drying and irritating liquid soaps because they increase sebum production. In order to avoid oiliness of the forehead, frequent hair washing is recommended. Topical treatments used in home care may be sufficient for the mildest cases: in order to counteract a too thick stratum corneum, pimples should be treated with exfoliants, drying paste, or suspensions, usually applied in the evening. Pharmacological therapy may be used in addition to localized treatments. Treatment ■ treat the affected area for 10 to 15 minutes two or three times a day. Color therapy ■ the color green is recommended for the affected area, yellow for the liver and the spleen, and orange for the kidneys.  

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LED phototherapy with polarized light for childhood illnesses

CHILDHOOD ILLNESSES ALLERGIC ASTHMA Accompanied by a temporary narrowing of the bronchi, which is experienced by the patient as attacks of breathlessness, dyspnea, a suffocating sensation, and wheezing. The patient feels like air is trapped in his/her chest, and it takes an effort to blow it out. These symptoms can trigger palpitations and agitation. In milder cases the symptoms of asthma include coughing and tightness in the chest. Symptoms can occur in response to exertion or during the night. Just as with hay fever, depending on the triggering allergen, symptoms can be present seasonally or all year around. They are also frequently accompanied by hay fever and food allergies. Strengthening of the immune system is very important in the complementary therapy of pediatric asthma. Treatment ■ in children treatment of the thymus, in adults the treatment of the solar plexus and the hili of the lungs (fourth intercostal space along the sternum) are recommended. Color therapy ■ the color green is recommended for the thymus and the hili of the lungs. SINUSITIS This is an inflammation of the sinus cavities. It can be recognized by headache and facial pain, symptoms that are triggered by bending down or coughing, and an additional symptom is a sensation of pressure on the top of the head. A doctor should be consulted in all cases, because antibiotic treatment is likely unavoidable. Treatment ■ the upper jaw and the frontal bone (forehead) should be treated twice daily for 8 to 10 minutes as a complementary therapy; additionally, treat the thymus and lymph glands situated under the jawbone (in children, treat the sternum). Color therapy ■ the anti-inflammatory effect of the color green is beneficial for healing. BRONCHITIS Polarized light therapy (used as a complementary treatment) can accelerate this illness running its course. Treatment ■ the mucosa of the throat and the pharynx, the maxillary lymph nodes on the front side of the neck, the hili of the lung on both sides of the sternum and the area under the shoulder blades, and the thymus in children, twice daily for 6 to 8 minutes. Color therapy ■ the color green as an anti-inflammatory treatment, blue for lymph nodes. EAR PAIN Middle ear infections In response to ear pain children frequently touch their ears, or the ears may be extremely sensitive to pressure. Hearing can deteriorate, moreover, neglected illness can lead to permanent hearing loss. See your doctor as soon as possible – do not wait until your child’s eardrum has to be lanced! Otitis externa A skin disease, inflammation of the external ear canal that is accompanied by severe pain, caused in most cases by water entering the ear canal. The child should be examined by a doctor in all cases, because frequently antibiotic treatment is unavoidable. In such cases the lamp should be used as a complementary treatment. Treatment ■ as a complementary treatment, 6 to 8 minutes, 2 to 3 times a day, treating both ears. Color therapy ■ the color green alleviates inflammation of the ears, then orange strengthens the immune system. CYSTITIS Cystitis develops frequently during childhood, but can also occur in adults, mainly women. It is accompanied by frequent urination and abdominal pain. Its treatment is important, because recurrent cystitis may lead to infertility in adulthood. Drink a lot of fluids! Polarized light therapy is recommended as a complementary treatment. Treatment ■ ▪ treat the ovaries and the abdomen for 10 minutes each, repeat after 20 minutes. Color therapy ■ the use of the color orange is recommended. FRONTAL SINUSITIS This is an inflammation of the sinus cavities. It can be recognized by headache and facial pain, symptoms that are triggered by bending down or coughing, and an additional symptom is a sensation of pressure on the top of the head. A doctor should be consulted in all cases, because antibiotic treatment is likely unavoidable. Treatment ■ the upper jaw and the frontal bone (forehead) should be treated twice daily for 8 to 10 minutes as a complementary therapy; additionally, treat the thymus and lymph glands situated under the jawbone (in children, treat the sternum). Color therapy ■ the anti-inflammatory effect of the color green is beneficial for healing. COLDS Characterized by nasal discharge and stuffiness. Treatment is best started when the first symptoms appear. To prevent complications such as sinusitis, nasal spray or nasal drops are recommended for the alleviation of stuffiness. Treatment ■ in addition to the nasal mucosa, the maxillary and frontal sinuses should also be treated. Recommendation: 2 to 3 sessions daily, 8 to 10 minutes per session. Color therapy ■ the calming effect of the color blue and the anti-inflammatory effect of green are beneficial. COUGHING Coughing can be triggered by many things. It is worth identifying the underlying cause then basing the treatment on this information, or, if possible, eliminate the cause (for example mold in or around the bed). Treatment ■ the mucosa of the throat and the pharynx, the maxillary lymph nodes on the front side of the neck, the hili of the lung on both sides of the sternum and the area under the shoulder blades, and the thymus in children, twice daily for 6 to 8 minutes. Color therapy ■ the color green as an anti-inflammatory treatment, blue for lymph nodes. CONJUNCTIVITIS Inflammation of the conjunctiva due to various causes, accompanied by a burning, itching, prickling sensation. Usually local treatment is used, with the help of a cream. A chamomile compress and rinsing the eye can be very helpful in the alleviation of the inflammation and its symptoms. Treatment ■ 4 to 6 minutes of treatment daily, treat both eyes while closed, two weeks of treatment is recommended. Color therapy ■ the calming effect of the color blue and the anti-inflammatory effect of green may contribute to healing. COMMON COLD The common cold can be accompanied by a variety of symptoms such as rhinitis, coughing or a sore throat. If present, these symptoms should be treated individually based on the appropriate

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LED phototherapy with polarized light for neonatal diseases

NEONATAL DISEASES The significance of treatment with the lamp is that since it has no side effects, in can be used for the treatment of infants. It accelerates healing, it is painless, and in many cases can be used while the infant is asleep. ALLERGY Allergy is an overreaction of the body to substances that generate no response under normal conditions. These substances are called allergens. The binding of allergen to an antibody triggers tissue inflammation. Generally speaking, allergies are an illness of the young, and unless chronic organic disorders are present (such as the narrowing of bronchi in asthma), symptoms usually become more moderate with advancing age. The symptoms of infantile or childhood allergic disease may shift as the child ages. For example, the symptoms of pediatric eczema and food allergies may clear up, or be replaced by other allergies such as hay fever and/or asthma. Diagnosis and proper treatment are very important, because any childhood allergy can increase the risk of developing asthma. Symptoms can vary greatly depending on which organ is the site of the allergic reaction. In all cases, the cause of the allergy should be clarified before commencing treatment. Since a predisposition to allergies can be inherited, and other factors also play a role in the development of allergic symptoms and allergic diseases, it is very important to take certain preventive steps in the case of high risk infants (a family history of allergies) in order to decrease the risk of the development of symptoms or disease. These precautions include: Breastfeed your child as long as possible. (Studies have shown that 6 months of breastfeeding decreases risk.) If you are unable to breastfeed, choose a so-called hypoallergenic formula. Unless it is medically indicated, do not take any medication during breastfeeding. Under the age of 1 year, your infant should not receive any foreign proteins such as cow’s milk. Any new foods should be introduced gradually into your infant’s diet. Do not smoke around your child. The environment of your infant should be free of allergenic materials (e.g. dust and mold, etc.) and domestic pets (e.g. cats and dogs, etc.). Treatment ■ According to the standard practice of the treatment of skin problems, the area to be treated should be cleaned first. Light therapy should be applied 2 to 3 times a day, illuminating the affected area for 4 minutes during each session. If your doctor prescribed a cream, it should be applied to the affected area before light therapy, and if the area is large the light should be moved back and forth over it. Color therapy ■ illuminate the area of the spleen and liver with yellow light for 6 minutes each, and the thymus with green light (in children). HIVES (URTICARIA) This is a local allergic reaction. A small, itchy rash that does not rise above the skin surface, it is mostly caused by food or drug allergy or contact allergens (such as chemicals), but can also be triggered by inhaled allergens (such as pollen). It is a very common allergic symptom. In rare cases, a chronic (long-lasting, frequently recurring) form occurs, and a thorough medical check-up and longterm monitoring might be required to identify the triggers. It is worth identifying and then eliminating the trigger. Treatment ■ 2 to 3 times 10 minutes daily. Color therapy ■ the color green, then orange is recommended. TEETHING Teething typically starts at the age of four months, and lasts until about age 2.5 to 3 years. Polarized light therapy helps reduce pain, promotes restful sleep, and alleviates the potential cold-like symptoms that accompany teething. Treatment ■ 10 minutes, on the affected area. Twice daily. Color therapy ■ light therapy can be complemented with the color blue. EAR PAIN Middle ear infection Frequent in children and infants, but also occurs in adults. In response to ear pain, small children frequently touch their ears, or the ears may be extremely sensitive to pressure. Hearing can deteriorate, moreover, neglected illness can lead to permanent hearing loss in children. See your doctor as soon as possible – do not wait until your child’s eardrum has to be lanced! Otitis externa A skin disease, inflammation of the external ear canal that is accompanied by severe pain, caused in most cases by water entering the ear canal. The child should be examined by a doctor in all cases, because antibiotic treatment is often unavoidable. In such cases the lamp should be used as a complementary treatment. Treatment ■ as a complementary treatment, 6 to 8 minutes, 2 to 3 times a day. The healthy ear should be treated too! Color therapy ■ the color green alleviates inflammation of the ears, then orange strengthens the immune system. ABDOMINAL PAIN Abdominal pain arises due to a variety of conditions. Always make sure that your child’s abdominal pain is not caused by serious illness! Newborns frequently experience abdominal discomfort due to swallowed air, and they have not yet learned how to get rid of wind produced during digestion. In addition to burping, these pains can be alleviated with polarized light, and the treatment also has a calming effect on the baby. Treatment ■ twice daily for 6 to 8 minutes on the abdominal area. Color therapy ■ the color blue has a calming effect on children. BRONCHITIS Polarized light therapy (used as a complementary treatment) can accelerate this illness running its course. Treatment ■ the mucosa of the throat and the pharynx, the maxillary lymph nodes on the front side of the neck, the hili of the lungs on both sides of the sternum and the area under the shoulder blades, and the thymus in children, twice daily for 6 to 8 minutes. Color therapy ■ the color green as an anti-inflammatory treatment, blue for lymph nodes.  

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